I have a pet peeve with some Lean consultants. They want to start by doing 5S. They think this will lay the ground work for all future improvements. I beg to differ.
5S (short for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain) is a systematic program that promotes a neat and orderly work area where abnormal conditions are easily spotted and corrected. But 5S to really work you need to already have some standardized work and understanding of workflow in that area. Doing it 'cold' won't work. Also important is that you need to have the problem 5S is supposed to solve in the first place (can't find what you need when you need it in a shared work space). Without these your 5S "implementation" will likely fail.
But I feel the biggest reason it fails is because you are trying to simultaneously start doing something new and try improving it at the same time.
At Toyota (where we copied 5S from), it probably worked because they were already committed to cleanliness and continuous improvement. They were doing those things first, 5S only made it easier to keep track of everything and find better ways to do it.
If your work is not used to cleaning, trying to force people to systematically clean and improve your workplace is probably too much change at once. People don't usually like change, particularly when you hint that they are currently doing the wrong thing.
Here's an alternative, start with the things you are already doing well and systematically improve how you do them. Then with each improvement you can slowly change things for the better. After all, isn't that what Kaizen is all about.